Read the previous part: Fundamentals of agricultural technology of columnar apple trees
Of particular interest is the maintenance of columnar apple trees in the culture of the bonsai tree. For this, the most dwarf varieties are used, grafted onto superdwarf rootstocks. In tubs or pots, such bonsai will be a good interior decoration from spring to autumn. In the fall, to ensure a dormant period, such trees must be transferred to the basement or subfloor, and in the spring they must be taken out again.
Columnar apple varieties with winter hardiness at the Antonovka level, such as President, Ostankino, Dialog, Malyukha, M38 / 37, 385/185, 368/139 and some others, are suitable for growing in the North-West. You can also recommend varieties: 376/46, 376/113, 376/119 and others, which have much higher winter hardiness than Antonovka ordinary.
Here are the characteristics of some of the columnar apple varieties:
Columnar apple varieties President
The president - trees are medium-sized, small-sized, natural semi-dwarfs, which work well on dwarf rootstocks. Fruits are medium and large 100-140 g and up to 250 g, flat, rich white-yellow color. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, dessert type with a well-pronounced aroma, the pulp is white, very juicy, fine-grained.
They ripen in mid-September and can be stored for a month and a half. The yield is 5-6 kg per tree (80-100 t / ha), and with increased care, the yield doubles. Pest and disease resistance at the level of the best standard varieties.
Columnar apple varieties Ostankino
Ostankino - trees are medium-sized, natural semi-dwarfs, they work well on dwarf rootstocks. Fruits are medium and very large 100-160 g and up to 300 g, round-flat, beautiful bright red color. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour with a predominance of sweet dessert taste with a well-pronounced aroma of the "Mekintosh" type, the flesh is white, very juicy, fine-grained.
They ripen in mid-September and can be stored until December. Productivity is 5-6 kg per tree (80-100 t / ha), with increased care and manure application, the yield can be twice as large. The variety is distinguished by an increased fruit set, which is very noticeable in years with cold weather during flowering and in the complete absence of bees' flight. Pest and disease resistance at the level of the best standard varieties.
Columnar apple variety Iksha
Iksha - trees are medium-sized, they work well on rootstocks like MM-106. Medium-sized fruits 80-140, with increased care in summer cottages 120-180 g, flat-round, orange in color with a red-striped blush. The taste is sweet and sour with a pronounced saffron aroma, the pulp is crepe, juicy, grainy.
They ripen at the end of August and are stored for about a month. The yield is 5-6 kg per tree (80-100 t / ha), doubles with increased care. Young seedlings have a tendency to give premature lateral shoots, so they should not be overfed with saltpeter or other nitrogen fertilizers. Pest and disease resistance at the level of the best standard varieties. Winter hardiness is very high, without freezing, the plant can withstand frosts of -42-44 ° C, one of the most winter-hardy columnar apple trees, designed for places where Antonovka is very freezing.
Columnar apple-tree variety Malyukha
Baby - trees are weak, natural dwarfs, they work well on semi-dwarf rootstocks such as MM 106. Fruits are medium-sized 60-80 g, truncated-conical, intense yellow and yellow-orange color. One of the most delicious varieties (children are very fond of) with dessert-type fruits - a pleasant sweet taste and very juicy pulp. The palatability of the fruit is complemented by a pleasant aroma of fine-grained yellowish pulp.
The yield is 5-6 kg per tree (80-100 t / ha), with increased care, the yield increases, the apples increase noticeably in size, the palatability of the fruits increases. With a weakening of care, the fruits become very shallow, the variety switches to periodic fruiting. The fruits ripen in mid-September and are stored for about a month. Resistance to pests and diseases at the level of the best standard varieties.
Columnar apple variety Dialog
Dialogue - the trees are medium-sized, they work better on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks. Fruits are one-dimensional, medium in size - 70-100 g, flat, rich, beautiful yellow color. The taste is sweet and sour with a pleasant light aroma, the pulp is white, juicy, fine-grained. Ripen in July among the earliest varieties.
The yield is high - 5-6 kg per tree (80-100 t / ha), and with an increased agricultural background, the yield doubles. Variety Dialog is highly valued as a very early dessert variety that ripens before Papirovka, with high quality fruits that can be stored well for more than a month in an ordinary refrigerator.
Nectar - trees with powerful development energy, natural semi-dwarfs, do well on dwarf rootstocks. Fruits are medium and large 100-140 g and up to 250 g, rounded in shape and white-yellow in color. The taste is sweet with a pronounced honey flavor, the pulp is juicy, white, grainy.
Productivity 5-6 kg per tree (80-100 t / ha), doubles with intensive care. Apples ripen at the end of August and are stored for about a month. Variety Medoc is intended for frost-prone areas where Antonovka Obydnaya freezes heavily, and is valued for its summer apples with a pleasant honey taste.
385/185 - trees are medium-sized, typical semi-dwarfs, they work well on dwarf rootstocks. Large-fruited columnar elite form with red-striped apples, with taste, aroma and appearance of calvilles. Fruits are medium and large - 120-160 g and up to 250 g, rounded-conical with strong ribbing in the form of an asterisk in the upper part of the fruit, red-striped. The taste is sweet and sour with a pleasant aroma, the pulp is slightly yellow, very juicy. Productivity 5-6 kg per tree (80 t / ha), responds well to increased care. The fruits ripen in early October and are stored until January. Pest and disease resistance at the level of the best standard varieties.
As for the columnar varieties of Siberian selection, I cannot say anything concrete yet, because the seedlings were sent to me and planted in the garden quite recently. First impressions give the impression that these are not "columns" in the full sense of the word, but compacts with spurous fruiting. More accurate information on the "columnar" apple trees of Siberian selection can be obtained only after several years of cultivation.
I. Barylnik, gardener
• Features of growing columnar apple trees
• Preparing apple trees for winter
• Popular varieties of apple trees in winter ripening
• Forming apple trees is an art
Columnar apple varieties with name and description: medok, president, ostankino
What is the difference between the varieties of columnar apple trees Medok, President and Ostankino?
They got the columnar shape of apple trees in Canada, having noticed a mutated branch on an ordinary tree and propagated it. More than half a century has passed since then, many varieties have been bred with different names. All of them form only one trunk, from which very small shoots with fruits diverge.
Due to its compact size and ease of maintenance, apple trees are welcome guests in small gardens. Look at the photos of these beauties, aren't they admirable? Domestic selection presented a number of columnar varieties, including President, Ostankino and Medok. The characteristics and description of the varieties are presented below.
Medoc belongs to early autumn ripening varieties. Suitable for cultivation in central Russia, Moscow region and Siberia. Apples have time to pick up the proper amount of sugars and ripen. The tree is vigorous, so it is grafted onto dwarfs 62-396 or Mark, then the column grows within 2.2 meters. The width of the crown is about 25 cm.
The root system is well branched and powerful, so the trees take root well when transplanted. The variety is fast-growing. It begins to bear fruit in the year of planting, the maximum yield is formed by 5 years of age. Up to 10 kg of fruit can be harvested from one tree. Apples ripen at the end of summer, are stored for about a month. Fruits are medium in size, about 100 grams, although individual specimens stretch up to 250 grams. The weight of apples is influenced by agricultural technology: feeding and watering. The pulp is white, juicy, sweet, with a honey flavor, although it has a faint aroma. Suitable for preparations and dried fruits.
The main advantages of the variety:
- Frost resistance. Where Antonovka freezes, Medoc feels great.
- Resistance to typical apple diseases.
A domestic variety with a columnar crown type Ostankino was bred in 1974. It has become widespread in the Moscow region, has good prospects in the Black Earth region. The tree is a semi-dwarf: it does not exceed 2.5 m.
The wood is tough, withstands gusts of wind well, without breaking. Fruiting begins from the second year of life. A mature tree produces an average of 10 kg of medium-sized fruit. Ostankino is an autumn variety, fruits ripen in September. Stored until December in storage. Under normal conditions, only a month.
Suitable for recycling. The pulp is juicy, sweet, with a slight sourness. Ostankino is resistant to diseases, winter hardiness can be equated to the Melba variety. When the apical bud freezes, it is necessary to leave one of the shoots as a continuation of the branch, and remove the rest.
The medium-sized columnar apple of the President variety was zoned in 2002. It showed itself well in the conditions of the central zone of Russia. The tree does not grow more than 2.5 m. It tolerates planting well and has a high survival rate. Begins to bear fruit early, a signal crop can be obtained in the year of planting.
The fruits cover the trunk abundantly, which has a solid wood that can support the weight of the crop. The ripeness period begins in September; they are stored in storage until December. The apples are large enough from 150 to 250 grams, pale yellow in color with a reddish blush. The rind is thin but very firm. The pulp is white, juicy and extraordinarily aromatic. Fresh fruits are used and for processing into homemade preparations, dried fruits, urinating. The variety is weakly affected by diseases, winter hardiness can be equated to Antonovka.
It is worth noting that the life span of the columnar apple trees of the listed varieties varies within 15 years, as long as ringlets live. An undoubted advantage can be considered a high percentage of fruit set, in the absence of bee flight. The varieties do not require much effort when growing, however, proper agricultural technology, timely feeding and watering improve the winter hardiness of the buds and increase the amount of harvest.
Nectar over the years of cultivation (it was bred in 1987) it has shown itself to be a drought-resistant, frost- and winter-hardy variety. It painlessly tolerates the unpleasant conditions of the middle lane, however, for the winter, experienced gardeners recommend mulching the trunk circle and protecting the tree stem from rodents.
Apple fruit Nectar large (some grow up to 250 g), strong, regular round shape. When apples are fully ripe, the skin is dense and light yellow in color. The pulp is juicy, coarse-grained, sweet, without sourness. A distinctive feature of the variety is the strong honey aroma that the fruits possess.
The tree is resistant to pests and diseases and is not inferior in this to the best tall varieties of apple trees.
End of August - beginning of September
Summer varieties of columnar apple trees for the Moscow region begin to ripen in the 20th of July or from August 1-15. Their fruits can be of different colors. This type is distinguished by a short shelf life of apples, as a rule, several weeks. Summer apples are good for cooking compotes, preserves, jams, making juices.
Semi-dwarf variety, with a compact crown. Apples of light green or light yellow color, weighing from 160-250 g with juicy grainy pulp of sweet taste. Maturity occurs in early August. This variety is characterized by resistance to harmful insects, diseases and freezing temperatures.
The variety has large, red apples of sour taste, elongated. One tree gives up to 7 kg of fruits. After 8 years, the trees reach 3 meters in height. The fruits can be stored for up to 30 days.
The variety is characterized by increased frost resistance, the fruits are small, yellow in color with a slight blush, sweet-sour taste.
The height of this columnar apple tree is 2 meters. Medok does not become infected with scab and tolerates freezing temperatures well.
The variety belongs to the early-growing, gives small fruits. Maluha is the most delicious of the columnar apple varieties.
Planting columnar apple trees
What time to plant
Experts advise planting this kind of apple tree in spring, but you need to have time to do this before the buds begin to open. If you wish, you can plant a seedling in open ground in the fall in the last days of September or the first in October, the main thing is that the weather is warm. For planting, it is recommended to purchase annual seedlings, not biennial ones. The fact is that such plants are relatively easy to take root and begin to grow and bear fruit much faster. When choosing a seedling, special attention should be paid to its roots, so there should be no rot on them. Trees with dry roots are also not worth purchasing. It is best to buy a seedling in a container, it can be planted even in the summer. A suitable area should be open and sunny, but remember that such an apple tree needs protection from strong gusts of wind. The soil needs a nutrient-rich and water-permeable soil. Groundwater at the site must lie at a depth of at least 200 centimeters.
Planting a columnar apple tree in the fall
In the event that you decide to plant a large number of columnar apple trees at once, then they should be arranged in rows. So, the distance between seedlings in a row should be at least 50 centimeters, while the row spacing should be 100 centimeters. Planting pits, which should have a size of at least 90x90x90 centimeters, must be prepared half a month before planting the plants. If this is not done, then after planting and sedimentation of the soil, the root collar will be located underground, and this can lead to the death of the seedling.
In the process of digging a hole, it is necessary to discard the upper layer of soil, in which there is a greater amount of nutrients, separately from the lower layer, without allowing them to mix. In the event that the soil is heavy, then at the bottom of the hole it is imperative to place a layer of rubble mixed with sand for drainage. After that, 3 to 4 buckets of humus (compost), 100 grams of superphosphate and 50 to 100 grams of potassium fertilizer should be poured into the fertile soil and mixed. It is also recommended to add from 100 to 200 grams of dolomite flour to acidic soil. This soil must be poured into the landing hole and its surface must be leveled. After half a month, the soil will settle and compact.
After 2 weeks, you need to pour the remaining soil mixture into the planting hole with a slide. After that, it is necessary to install the root system of the apple tree directly on this "hill" so that the root collar of the seedling rises slightly above the surface of the site. After the roots are straightened, you need to pour infertile soil (from the lower layer) into the hole and tamp it well. Step back 30 centimeters from the trunk and form a roller around it, the height of which should be from 10 to 15 centimeters. The planted tree should be watered using 10–20 liters of water.After the liquid is absorbed into the soil, its surface must be sprinkled with a layer of mulch (sawdust, peat or crushed grass). If desired, you can install a support next to the seedling and tie it up.
How to plant a columnar apple tree in spring
In the event that the planting of columnar apple trees is planned for the spring, then it is recommended to prepare the planting holes in the autumn. During the winter, the soil will settle, compact, and the applied fertilizers will dissolve. Apple trees planted in such holes take root much faster, and in the same year they can even bloom. You need to plant a seedling in the spring in the same way as in the fall.
Caring for columnar apple trees
Regular watering and pest and disease control are the main details in caring for columnar apple trees.
It is recommended to water young kolonovidki at least 2 times a week.
In addition, pruning will also be required, of course, not as reinforced as for ordinary apple trees. Usually, they begin to trim the columns from the second year after planting. At the same time, the main column is not touched, but only the side branches of 10-20 centimeters are cut off.
The normal growth of columnar apple trees is 20-35 cm per year. And if it is less, then you need to feed the seedlings with manure or urea.
If the growth is greater, then potash or phosphorus fertilizers must be applied to the soil so that the shoots have time to mature well.
Fertilizers are recommended to be applied to a depth of 20 cm. They are scattered on the ground and dug up the soil.
It is recommended to shelter young seedlings of columnar apple trees not only from rodents, but also from severe frosts. Spruce branches, plastic burlap, white lutrasil are suitable for this. Please note that the shelter should not be removed until the snow melts so that young trees do not get sunburn from the bright spring sun.