Grapes have always been famous for their wonderful taste and health benefits. There is a dark grape variety Codryanka, which is in demand on the market for its taste and presentation. Many gardeners take up the cultivation of this variety, what should you know to get a decent harvest? Further about the description of the variety.
Description of the grape variety Codrianka
The variety was obtained by hybrid crossing more than 50 years ago in Moldova. It became widespread in the USSR and abroad, where it is known under the name "Black Magic". The grape varieties "Moldova" and "Marshal" are the genetic basis of the variety.
Hereditary traits that were acquired from parental forms:
- frost resistance average (-23 ° С)
- the stems of the bunches are dense and strong, do not break off under the force of gravity of the fruit
- load on the main shoot is average
- disease resistance
- early ripening (110 - 120 days, August, fruiting until late September early October)
- bushes grow strongly
Individual characteristics of the variety:
- moderate density and arrangement of clusters on the bush
- from 500 - to 600 g weight of one bunch
- high yield (50 kg / ha)
- fruiting in the second year
Grapes in one place you can grow up to 30 years, if you monitor the composition of the soil and preserve moisture and nutrients as much as possible.
The grapes are suitable for growing in three regions of Russia: North Caucasian, Nizhnevolzhsky, Uralsky. Grows favorably in Ukraine, in the center and south of Belarus, as well as in Moldova.
Content of the main elements:
- Sugar content - 18 - 20%
- Acid content 6 - 7.5 g / l
- Water - 79.9%
- Proteins - 0.6 g / 100g
- Fat - 0.6 g / 100g
Characteristics of berries
- 1 - 2 seeds in one berry
- fruit weight 6 - 8 g
- berries do not fall off for a long time when ripe, they last up to 25 days
- tendency to small formation of fruits, peas, in an unfavorable climate and care
- fruit height 3.2 cm, width 2 cm, elongated shape, ovoid
- berry color dark purple
- firm pulp
- fine skin with medium wax coating
- simple harmonious taste
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the variety include, first of all:
- high yield
- well stored subject to optimal temperature and humidity
- transport damage is minimal
- withstands temperature - 23 ° С
- pleasant taste
- early ripening and long fruiting times
- resistance to diseases of grapes with mildew and gray rot
- with inadequate care, small fruits are formed, which reduces the demand in the market. But using gibberellins, this problem is solved.
- requires shelter in regions where temperatures drop by more than -24 ° C, which incurs material costs
The grapes are mainly grown by cuttings.
Seed cultivation is practiced, but in this case the grapes will no longer be a Codryanka variety. It will have completely different characteristics and features, since pollination occurs during the formation of seeds. And this leads to a change in genetic material. Breeders are engaged in growing grapes from seeds.
When buying planting material, in particular an annual seedling, you should pay attention to the appearance of the culture.
The seedling must meet the following requirements:
- the plant should not have visible diseases, tumors and any mechanical damage
- the root system should have a well-developed main root and many small fibrous roots
- the main shoot should be even and strong, exceed the others in height and have a vertical direction
- there should be 2 - 3 healthy buds per plant
Basic requirements for site selection:
- the site is well lit
- relief without obvious differences, landing on a slope of 11 - 12 ° is possible
- the soil on the site must be not saline
- groundwater is lower than all plant roots
- minimum amount of weeds
Planting of grapes can take place in spring, when the soil temperature is 10 °, or in autumn before frost. The month and day vary by region.
- A hole is dug 80 by 80 cm in size, twice the depth of the root system. In the spring, holes are dug 14 days before disembarkation.
- The wells are set aside for 2 - 3 hours, while watered 3 - 4 times
- With the help of gravel, broken brick, or crushed stone, a drainage layer of 4 - 6 cm is created.
- Further, fertile soil is applied to the drainage, with the addition of organic and mineral fertilizers. The fertilizer application rate is indicated on the packages.
- The culture is lowered into a pit, leveling the roots, and covered with soil, making a depression around it.
- Abundant watering.
- On top of the mulching layer - weed residues, straw.
Grape planting schemes
Let's look at two growing schemes:
Ordinary landing method
The culture is planted in a row of two plants in a checkerboard pattern. Row spacing 2.4 m, between plants 0.65 m. Or simply in a row one plant at a time, row spacing 2.5 m, between seedlings 1.5 - 2 m. This is a method for growing in the field.
Trellis planting method
In this case, the plant forms a green wall from the vineyard, the distance between plants is 1.5 m. Suitable for growing at home.
Care of young and mature vines
Watering is regular, performed as precipitation falls. 5 liters per plant, depending on the weather. Soil moisture should be monitored. Mineral fertilizers: in the spring it is necessarily nitrogen, after 20 days nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, after 30 days phosphorus potassium.
At the beginning of the ripening of the grapes, do not add nitrogen, this will increase the growth of the green mass and weaken the development of fruits. They will lose their density and taste.
At the stage of the first year of life, it is necessary to carry out formative pruning to create the desired shape of the bush.
Care for mature vines is slightly different. Watering, fertilizing the same way. Cropping is different. There are mainly two types of pruning:
- Annual pruning is necessary to maintain the shape of the bush.
- Fitting pruning. It is carried out to replace old shoots with young ones.
- Sanitary pruning. Sick, non-viable shoots are removed.
Reproduction is done by layering and cuttings. In order to propagate the plant by cuttings, shoots with 2 - 3 buds are cut off, then rooted. For reproduction, shoots are removed from different parts of the plant by layering, they lean against the soil with their buds and fall asleep, the formation of roots occurs. After the formation of the roots and stem, the cut is cut off.
Diseases and pests
Damaged by disease: rubella, bacterial cancer, chlorosis, anthracnose, bacteriosis. There are specialized chemical and biological agents against these diseases.
Grapes are immune to mildew and gray rot diseases; prevention is recommended against these diseases. By treating plants with pesticides against these infectious principles, 2 times a year.
Insects harm: spider mite, phyloxera. With the help of correct annual soil cultivation, the threshold of harmfulness of these insects is reduced.
At home, they use folk remedies in the fight against insects and diseases.
Codrianka grapes are an exceptional variety that will always be popular for their irreplaceable qualities and taste. Every amateur gardener can afford to cultivate this culture.
Description and cultivation of the table grape variety Codrianka
The description of the variety should start with a story about its main characteristics. The culture is early maturing - the harvest is harvested in 108-118 days. The variety is high-yielding even in the presence of bad weather conditions, begins to bear fruit in 2-3 years. The ripening rate of shoots is 80–90%. The bush can withstand frosts down to -23 ° C.
It can withstand spring frosts and summer heat better than other types of culture. Has a strong immunity to diseases such as gray rot and mildew. For all their sweetness, the berries are rarely affected by wasps. It does not require special care - it is enough to know some features of growing a shrub. A healthy seedling takes root well in a new place. Can be a scion for bushes of other varieties.
The Kodryanka grape is a tall, sturdy and spreading shrub. The average weight of a bunch is 500-600 g, but there are also specimens weighing 1.5 kg. The bunches are firmly attached to the bush, they hold well on it even in a fully ripe state. The berries are large, each weighing no more than 8 g. The average grape size is 3.1 × 1.9 cm. The shape of the fruit is ovoid or elongated. The color of the peel is dark purple. There is a protective wax coating - pruin.
The berries are moderately dense on the bunch, easily torn off, and the dense skin is not felt when used. The pulp is fleshy and juicy. There are also some seeds that separate from the pulp without any problems. The fruit contains up to 19% sugars - with a degree of acidity up to 8 g / l.
There is also a hybrid form of unknown origin called White Kodryanka (in Volgograd it is called Cinderella). Outwardly, it looks like the Biruintsa variety. The ripening period of the hybrid is 130–140 days, the bunches weigh about 600–800 g, and each berry - up to 12 g. Codryanka is a universal grape: it is used fresh, it is used to make wine.
The ripening period of Codryanka directly depends on the load of the bush with the harvest, as well as on the moment of the beginning of flowering, which is often lagging behind in comparison with other varieties. Therefore, you can get a ready-made harvest both at the beginning of August, and with a slight delay. The growing season is 110-120 days from the beginning of bud break.
Bushes great vigor, ripen well to full length. It begins to bear fruit early; in the second year of the growing season, you can get a fairly solid harvest, which is desirable to normalize. The flower is bisexual. Despite the well-developed male color, pollination does not always go well. Very often there are underdeveloped small berries without seeds, which in no way spoils the external commercial qualities of the variety.
Bunches large, conical in shape, sometimes with branches, loose or of medium density. The mass of one varies on average from 500-1000 grams, some reach up to 1.5 kg.
Berry large, weighing 6-8 grams, dark purple in color, “black” when fully ripe, covered with a prune bloom. The flesh is fleshy and crispy, the skin is thin and easily torn. Covered Taste harmonious.
Sustainability to mildew and oidium 2.5-3 points on the Gusfeld scale. Frost hardiness up to -22 ° С. It also does not tolerate spring frosts, which are detrimental to many grape varieties.
Working on the crossing of the Marshalsky and Moldova varieties, the creators tried to ensure that the hybrid retains the characteristics of each of them and even multiplies these qualities. As a result, they got grapes:
- Early ripe.
- Moderately sour.
- Disease resistant.
- Immune to low temperatures.
- Preserving presentation on the vine and during transportation.
- With good stability of performance from season to season.
Kodryanka is recognized by gardeners as an unpretentious and stress-resistant variety that is not afraid of frost, unfavorable weather, while it will bring owners a lot of heavy bunches filled with large oblong berries.
He is known and appreciated in the Moscow region, Rostov and in the Urals: everywhere, subject to careful care, the shrub will give a generous harvest, repeated from harvest to harvest.
The first signal fruiting of my Codryanka was very spectacular. The first brushes were almost ready for our Kursk grape exhibition on July 24th. Of course, the bottom of the tassels was still a little sour, but for our zone this is a very unusual and tasty grape. Sugar had gained 15 Br by that time. The rest were cut in mid-August, the berries are sweet and sour. The kids liked it. The weight of the brushes is in the region of 1000-1850g.Olga Boreykina
Codryanka, along with Arcadia, is one of those early varieties on which it seems impossible to lose in the harvest. Despite the fact that every year you need to manicure peas (well, this is personal, IMHO) Codryanka is such a mammoth, which cannot be moved by new twins. This is the main variety on my vineyard for my husband.Vera Bova
Despite the peas, there is still nothing to replace Codryanka. Taste, stability - everything is at a high level.Scythian
I have been keeping the codryanka since about 1988. I consider the variety, with proper care, very good and very productive. When new varieties appeared at one time I wanted to throw it away. But there is no replacement for it. But some, although they can argue with this With a large formation, pulls any load .100 kg for it not the limit And taste is better than many new varieties. The flesh is crispy when fully ripe, the sweet peel is not felt when eating. Unlike many new hybrid forms.Vladimir Kolupaev
My Codryanka is the third year. Last year there was a signaling. Somehow did not impress.liana
This year I left 8 bunches. One is about a kilogram. The rest 7 are all about 1500 kg. The bunches are very dense. There are few peas.
The taste is excellent, sweet, crispy berry.
Everyone liked it very much.
Despite its age, Codryanka remains one of the most popular grape varieties. It consistently pleases even inexperienced gardeners with large yields of large and tasty berries, and minor deficiencies of the variety are easily eliminated with good care.
When planting a seedling, you need to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology. This is the only way to grow a healthy vine.
The best time to plant vines is spring (the last days of March - early April). There is no risk that a seedling that has not yet matured will dry out, as happens when planting in the fall. Over the spring and summer, it will have time to take root, and by next year it will begin to grow actively.
Choosing a place on the site
It is recommended to plant seedlings in sunny areas protected from the winds. It is important to choose an area where tall trees and shrubs will not grow nearby, which will create shade for a long time. You need to choose the western or southern sections.
Before planting a seedling, it is important to choose a place in advance and prepare the soil.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Particular attention should be paid to the choice of seedlings. At the time of purchase, the root system is examined. It should be well developed, it is undesirable for dry roots and damage to the roots. The stem must be firm and healthy.
Before planting, the rhizome must be dipped in a liquid clay solution. The clay should not be allowed to dry out, so you need to plant the seedling immediately after that.
Planting pit preparation
The soil is prepared several weeks before disembarkation. They dig up the soil, pull out all the weeds. A shallow drainage is poured into the bottom. The earth is mixed with rotted manure. In this form, the place is left for 10-14 days.
The grapes are planted at a distance of 30-45 cm from each other.
- Dig a hole about 55 cm deep and 40 cm wide.
- Fill the drainage at the bottom, lay a thick piece of cardboard on it.
- Cover part with soil mixed with manure.
- Place the seedling in the hole and bury it.
At the end of planting, pour plenty of water over the hole.
A good variety, very early ripening, but not without drawbacks. If the weather is favorable during flowering, everything is fine; if it is cold, there are a lot of pea berries. Planting pollinator varieties does not help, as this is not the reason for peas. It is necessary either to process gibberelin or to carry out artificial pollination. In general, I am satisfied with Codryanka, in good years it gives beautiful clusters with large tasty berries.
Plus varieties in resistance to phylloxera - no need to think about grafted seedlings, I boldly propagate it by cuttings. After pruning, I cut the cuttings, soak and plant, the survival rate is about 50%. It ripens early, the harvest is beautiful and tasty. But peas happen in some years.
I planted it for beautiful bunches, I took cuttings from a neighbor. In our area, you need to cover - the variety is not frost-resistant. I cover it with earth, before that I bend the bush to the ground and pin it. So it winters perfectly.