Doronicum (Doronicum), or goat, is an unpretentious and very attractive perennial flowering herb from the Astrov family, which appeared in culture in the middle of the 16th century. The flower can be found in the temperate climate of Eurasia and in North Africa, it feels great in the mountainous area at an altitude of more than 3.5 km above sea level. The culture is quite popular with florists and landscape designers. These sunny flowers are used for bouquets and various flower arrangements.
Description of the flower doronicum
Doronicum propagates easily by seeds. The perennial consists of a fibrous rhizome located close to the surface of the earth, straight and strong weakly branching stems from 30 cm to 1 m high. Its juicy light green leaves, like wrappers, are located throughout the stem. The surface of the stems and leaves is slightly pubescent. The culture blooms in early spring and in July-August with single yellow flowers similar to chamomile or small inflorescences. Seed fruits contain very small seeds.
Growing doronicum from seeds
Doronicum seeds can be sown directly into open ground in spring or autumn, but the seedling method of growing is considered the most effective and reliable. To obtain high-quality seedlings, it is recommended to use seeds harvested in the coming season, although they retain good germination for two years after collection.
Sowing of seeds begins not earlier than the second half of April. The most suitable seeding container would be a cell tray. Each cell must be filled with prepared moist soil mixture and buried in 2-3 seeds. The substrate should consist of equal proportions of coarse river sand and peat. It is recommended to cover the entire container with plastic wrap or glass.
Covering boxes should be kept in a warm and bright room with diffused lighting without direct sunlight. After about 1-2 weeks, the first shoots should appear, after which it is necessary to immediately remove the glass or film from the tray.
Young plants require moist soil, so it should be regularly moistened with a fine spray. The substrate should not dry out. Condensation accumulating on the cover must be removed at all times with a paper or light cloth. For the full development of seedlings, do not forget about airing the crops.
After the emergence of seedlings, the level of illumination of the room must be increased, while continuing to protect young crops from direct sunlight. If there is a lack of natural light, you can use fluorescent lamps or other sources. The devices should be placed above the plants at a height of at least 25 cm. Conventional lamps cannot be used for these purposes, since they negatively affect the doronicum seedlings when overheated.
Pruning of weak plants is carried out when they reach a height of more than 4 cm. Now only one, the strongest and strongest specimen should remain in each cell. The rest of the seedlings are recommended to be carefully cut to the level of the soil. To stimulate tillering, when three or four full-fledged leaves appear, pinching the top is carried out.
Hardening procedures begin approximately 2 weeks before planting in open ground. Every day, planting trays with seedlings should be taken out into the open air and left for several hours, not forgetting to build protection from cold drafts, sharp gusts of wind and natural precipitation. The duration of the walk should be increased daily.
Planting doronicum in open ground
When is it better to plant doronicum
The most favorable time is from May 15 to June 15. It is very important to take into account the climatic conditions of your region so that young crops are guaranteed not to be threatened by night frosts, and the soil is sufficiently warmed up in the sun.
The light-loving "sunny chamomile" perfectly tolerates shady growing conditions, but to maintain a high decorative effect of flowers, it is necessary to plant seedlings on a semi-shaded plot of land with loose and moderately moist soil. It is not recommended to place the doronicum close to the trunks of mature trees. Deep digging of the soil (to a depth of about 25 cm) in the future flower garden is best done in the fall. During work, it is necessary to feed the land with rotted manure.
How to properly plant doronicum
The interval between the planting holes is at least 50 cm, since the doronicum has the peculiarity of growing very quickly in a short time. The size of the planting pit should be such that a seedling with an earthen clod can freely fit into it. The plant is placed in a hole, the root part is sprinkled with earth, the soil is compacted and slightly moistened.
Caring for doronicum in the garden
Since the root of the doronicum is close to the soil surface, it requires frequent watering in moderation. Irrigation water should be warm and settled. You can put a special container for irrigation water in a sunny area, and it will heat up during the day on its own. Excess and lack of moisture in the soil is equally undesirable for flowering perennials.
If the flower garden is not mulched, then you will have to regularly weed it from the emerging weeds. This process is best done by hand to avoid damaging the delicate and fragile flowers. You will also need to constantly loosen the soil so that the root part gets enough air. In the presence of a mulch layer of any organic matter (wood chips, sawdust, grass cuttings), moisture evaporates more slowly, and weeds do not grow. The soil remains light and loose for longer.
Doronicum must be fed twice: at the beginning of the growing season and before flowering. Liquid organic or mineral fertilizers can be used as fertilizers.
Pruning of wilted inflorescences along with arrows should be carried out during the first flowering - in the spring and during the second - in the summer. Such a procedure, with its regularity and timeliness, will maintain the decorative and attractiveness of the flower garden or flower bed throughout all flowering days.
Flowering perennial doronicums usually tolerate winter well; there is no need to use a shelter.
Reproduction of doronicum
Reproduction of doronicum by dividing the bush not only helps to increase the number of flowering plantations, but also rejuvenates adult crops. At the age of 3-4 years, the flower garden becomes less attractive. Its inflorescences decrease in diameter over the years, old shoots dry out. You can give the plant a second youth by dividing it into small parts - delenki. The procedure can be carried out from the beginning to the middle of autumn. An adult bush is removed from the ground, cut into several parts so that each has a strong and healthy root, and the cuttings are planted in a new place. If you divide the bush more often, then this will favorably affect the size of the flowering baskets.
Diseases and pests
Dangerous for doronicum - thrips, aphids, slugs. Sucking pests are destroyed by Akarin, Aktellik, Karbofos. Gastropods are fought with folk methods. Red ground pepper and mustard powder are scattered over the surface of the ground on a flower garden and left until the expected result.
Possible diseases are gray rot, powdery mildew, rust. Control measures - three times treatment of plants with Topaz or Fundazol.
Types and varieties of doronicum
Florists name more than 50 species of goat, but their exact number has not yet been established. This large family also has leaders in flower culture.
Doronicum austrian - bright yellow inflorescences, ovoid leaves, height - 70 cm.
Doronicum plantain - a tall plant with a height of about 1.5 m, large sun-colored flowers with a diameter of about 12 cm, blooms at the end of May. The best varieties are Miss Mason and Excelsium.
Doronicum oblong-leaved - short rhizome, single stem of reddish-purple hue, high peduncle and small, single pale yellow flowers. Grows in damp and stony soils.
Doronicum Turkestan - single, thickened and bare at the top of the stem, small flowers of a light yellow shade with a diameter of no more than 3 cm. Grows in Central Asia and Siberia.
Doronicum Altai - a straight or branched stem of a brown or purple shade with dense pubescence in the upper part, long peduncles, yellow baskets - inflorescences.
Doronicum Columns - long tuberous root part, bare peduncles, light yellow flowers with a diameter of about 6 cm, height - up to 80 cm. The best variety is Gold Ostrich.
Doronicum Caucasian - horizontal rhizome, light green leaves, single pale yellow flowers. Used for the background, as it significantly loses its attractiveness after the end of flowering. Popular varieties are Little Leo, Gold Dwarf, Spring Beauty.
Doronicum Clusa - undersized plant 10-30 cm high, short creeping rhizome, densely pubescent peduncle and single yellow flowers.
Doronicum Doronicum (goat) is common in the temperate regions of Eurasia. The genus includes more than 30 species. Perennials with an articulated, highly branched rhizome, almost superficial. Slightly branching stems, 50 - 100 cm high. The lower leaves are in a basal rosette, on long petioles, stem leaves are sessile, alternate, inflorescences are baskets, usually single, sometimes in a loose corymbose inflorescence. The color of the marginal ligulate and central tubular flowers is yellow, reminiscent of a chamomile. Blooms in May.
There are several types in culture. Eastern Doronicum has a height of 30 - 50 cm, with rounded basal and somewhat elongated stem leaves. Baskets are single, on long peduncles. The color of the reed flowers is light yellow. Doronicum plantain reaches a height of 80 cm, there is a garden form up to 150 cm high. It is distinguished by oval-elliptical basal leaves narrowed into a long petiole and large yellow inflorescences. Blooms from mid-May to mid-June. Does not form seeds.
Doronicums grow well both in illuminated areas and in partial shade. Sufficiently moist, loose soil with sufficient organic matter is suitable. They can grow in one place for many years. Frost resistant. They do not require special care. Mulch in spring and autumn.
Propagated vegetatively: parts of rhizomes in June - July. Diseases - spotting, leaf nematodes. Pests are a drooling penny. Spectacular in a clean group landing. Also suitable for mixborders in combination with early spring small bulbous. They are planted in the background, as the plants quickly lose their decorative effect.
Botanical description of doronicum
Doronicum is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family in height. Rhizome is highly branched, almost superficial. The leaves are cordate, the lower ones are on long petioles, collected in a basal rosette.
Inflorescences-baskets with a diameter rise on thin, almost leafless peduncles. Both the marginal ligulate flowers and the middle tubular ones are yellow. Blooms in May, flowering, depending on the species, lasts from 30 to 45 days. The fruit is achene. Seeds remain viable
Planting and caring for doronicum (in short)
- Planting: sowing seeds in open ground - in May or before winter, in October, sowing seeds for seedlings - in April, transplanting seedlings into open ground - in late May or early June.
- Flowering: from May for 30-40 days, then the ground part dies off, but with good care and favorable weather conditions at the end of summer, the plant can bloom again.
- Lighting: bright diffused light or partial shade.
- Soil: loose, moist, but not waterlogged.
- Watering: frequent but moderate.
- Top dressing: in the spring and before flowering - with a solution of organic matter or complex mineral fertilizer.
- Diseases: rust, powdery mildew, gray rot.
- Pests: thrips, aphids.
Planting options for perennial flowers
Perennial plants can be planted with seeds densely in mid-spring under cover in a greenhouse, or for seedlings at home.
You can sow seeds of perennial flowers before winter. Usually, this is done in October-November. But the grooves and the planting bed itself are prepared in September. The seeds undergo natural stratification, therefore they are healthier and more blooming in the future. An excellent option for planting seeds for the winter in pots. In this case, it is necessary to sow a little deeper than in spring and cover with mulch or non-woven material.
You can sow in cold greenhouses, from which in the spring to plant in a permanent place. You can sow directly into flower beds or under ornamental shrubs.
Rhizomes can be planted in early or late summer.
This group includes the following plants for a summer residence and a perennial garden: herbaceous perennial, early flowering, curly, floral, flowering, flowering - Pansies, Doronicum, Daisy, Primula bulbous - Hyacinth, Crocus, Narcissus, Tulip.
Perennial flower plant (violet having three colors, viola). Biennial cold-resistant plant. The stem height is 15-30 cm.
Flowers in blooming are single, attractive with a diameter of 4-8 cm, a peculiar shape and unusual bright color: dark blue with a golden eye, blue, purple and other colors.
The blooming period of flowers is the end of April - July. Propagated by seeds. Seedlings grown in advance are planted in the ground on a land plot. The seeds of a flowering plant are harvested in June, collecting yellowed bolls, which are dried and cleaned.
In August, seeds of pansy flowers are sown in a cool greenhouse in partial shade at 4-5 g / m2 to a depth of 1-2 cm. The seedlings of the plant dive in the interval of 8-10 cm often, but not watered abundantly. By winter, flowering plants develop, root well, sometimes even bloom during the frost period.
With the onset of spring, the plants are gradually hardened. Opening the greenhouses letting the fresh breath of spring breathe power into the flowers. By the end of April, the seedlings are growing and ready for planting. Plants are planted along the paths or near the garden house, the distance between the rows is 25 cm. The planted seedlings are slightly compacted, watered, then the soil is loosened and weeds are removed. It is not damaged by pests and diseases.
Doronicum (early yellow chamomile).
Perennial wintering plant. The length of the chamomile stem is up to 80 cm. The inflorescences of the flowering plant are large, yellow in color, with an orange body of the flower head, placed on oblong peduncles. The time when this sunny plant blooms is April - May.
Long-lasting and abundant flowering. Doronicum is an unpretentious plant. The flower propagates by dividing rhizomes and seeds. Parts of the bush (delenka) are planted in the spring (March - April) or when autumn begins (September - October) at intervals of 30 cm from each other. Soon after flowering, the plant dries up and the growing season ends. The soil should be loose in summer. Damaged by a stink beetle.
Perennial flower plant, in culture - biennial. The stem is shortened, the height is 10-14 cm. The inflorescences of flowers are simple, very catchy semi-double and completely double, white, pink and red in color.
Bloom profusely, perennial plants have a long flowering period - from April to July. Propagated by seeds. Growing daisies seedlings and care are the same as for pansies.
Perennial flowering plant. The stem of the flower is even, straight, up to 40 cm high.Primrose inflorescences are large, differ in huge variations in flowering forms and colors of variegated flowers.
The flowering time of the plant is April-May. Primrose is an unpretentious perennial plant. The flower propagates by dividing the bush and separately by seeds. The bush is divided in the spring, before flowering.
Delenki are planted at intervals of 20-25 cm from each other. It grows well and blooms in a semi-shaded place, on a fertile garden loose and moist soil. Drought does not tolerate and perishes. Therefore, the primrose plant (primrose) is constantly watered and the soil is loosened every 10 days. It is not damaged by pests and diseases.
Perennial flowering plant. The height of the stem is 15-30 cm. The flowers of the hyacinth are collected in multiple clusters-inflorescences of extraordinary and bright colors, with a delicate, very pleasant aroma. The flowering period of the plant is late March - early May (15-35 days). After the end of flowering, the plant completely loses its decorative effect and dries up by the end of July. Hyacinth is an unpretentious plant. Propagated by bulbs, children.
Placed in semi-shaded places. In one place it grows up to 4-5 years. For planting, the flower bulbs are dug out at the beginning of the drying out of the leaves and stored in gauze bags in a dry, shaded place. Keep flower bulbs away from mice, they love them. Before planting, hyacinth is fertilized with humus (8-10 kg / m2) and dug deep into the soil, 15 kg of sand per 1 m2 are applied on black soil.
In October, the bulbs of the hyacinth flower plant are planted in grooves made to a depth of 10-15 cm at a distance of 15 cm between the plants and 25 cm between the rows. When the hyacinth bulbs have already been planted, they are covered with sand in a small layer of 3-4 cm, well watered, then sprinkled with dry earth. The baby plant is planted separately.
For the winter, the plants are covered with the tops of the remaining flower plants. In the spring, the covering material is removed and, along the seedlings, a complete mineral fertilizer is introduced into the aisles, 50 g per 1 m2, with further loosening of the soil. During a long growing season, the fertile soil is loosened and cleaned of weeds. Fading, uncut brushes are removed immediately. It is not damaged by pests and diseases.
Perennial floral plant. Flower stem - up to 15 cm. Flowers are tubular, cupped, fragile, of various colors, located singly or in groups clustered in a small number of pieces. Crocus flowering plant is an unpretentious, delicate plant, distinguished by a rich selection of flowers and a rather long flowering period - April - May.
The flowers are quite frost-resistant, withstand temperatures up to -8 ° C. Propagated by corms, children. Prefers sunny locations and fertile garden soils. Crocus grows in one place for 3-5 years.
For planting, saffron plants are dug out at the beginning of the drying out of the leaves and stored in dry ventilated and shaded rooms. Soil preparation, planting and care are the same as for hyacinth. It is not damaged by pests and diseases.
Perennial wintering flowering plant. The height of the peduncles is 40-50 cm. The flowers of the daffodil are of various shapes and types (tubular, double, crown), white, yellow, a number of varieties with a pleasant aroma. Narcissus is an unpretentious plant. The flowering period for a flowering plant is April - May. As a result of the selection of varieties of daffodils, flowering can be continued until June.
The structure of the flower is divided into the following groups: tubular forms of color (tube length more than 3 cm), large crown flowers (crown length over 2 cm), small crown flowers, poetic, etc. Propagated by bulbs and children. Daffodils grow very well in open and semi-shaded places.
In one place, daffodils most of their varieties grow for 5 years. Tubular flower varieties should be repotted continuously after two to three years. For planting, daffodil bulbs are dug out when the leaves dry out and stored in a dry, darkened room. Soil preparation and care for the plant is the same as for hyacinths. It is not damaged by pests and diseases.
Perennial well-wintering plant. The stem is erect. Height - 10-60 cm. Flowers are large, spherical, oval, goblet and other forms. The color of the flowers of the plant has different shades of the rainbow, except for blue and blue. The flowering period of early, middle and late varieties is late March - late May.
Tulip is an unpretentious plant. Some 140 species and over 5000 varieties are known. The group of early varieties includes Bel Amy, Cooler-Cardinal, White-Gauk, F. Roosevelt medium - Darwin hybrids (Bolshoi Theater, London, Golden Oxford, Favorite Golden Parade, Diplomat,) late varieties - Garnet bracelet, Detmer, Crimean 85, Yalta ... Propagated by bulbs and babies. Prefers open and semi-shaded areas, grows well on loose, fertile garden soils.
It is noticed that in one place it grows for 5-6 years, but lush and bright specimens are obtained with an annual transplant. For planting, tulip bulbs are dug out after the yellowing phase of the leaves and try to store in a dry, semi-dark room with a ventilation system. After digging, all diseased bulbs are destroyed. Soil preparation and maintenance are the same as for hyacinths.
Plants are mainly affected by the following diseases: gray rot, fusarium, viral variegation. Control measures - all diseased plants should be immediately dug up and destroyed by burning or burying in the soil to a depth of 50 cm.
The area with tulips must be kept fresh and free from garden weeds. You should not be zealous and oversaturate the soil with nitrogen and allow it to become waterlogged. When placed for storage, the bulbs are dusted with TMTD (2 g per 1 kg of bulbs). Before planting, they are kept for 2 hours in a solution of potassium permanganate (3 g per 10 l of water).
Home flowers. Indoor and garden plants.
Flowers partners for doronicum
Doronicum are photophilous, but they develop well in partial shade, in this case their inflorescences become larger, and flowering is longer. Plants are demanding on moisture, but the soil should not be soggy. After flowering, they lose their decorative effect; in dry areas, the foliage disappears completely. Therefore, it is good to place doronicum in the background of a flower garden, and between its bushes - to plant perennials with stably decorative foliage: Rogersia, Darmera. ferns, daylilies, which will cover the plant that has lost its attractiveness.
During the flowering period, doronicums will be supported by bulbous and small-bulbous, as well as spring-flowering perennials - primroses, brunners, forget-me-nots, aquilegia.